The Danish flexicurity model, which was largely developed through the s, is characterised by three core elements: flexible rules for hiring and dismissals, generous replacement rates of unemployment insurance benefits and substantial spending on active labour market policies. The main advantage of flexicurity is that it limits the financial risk to both employers and employees. The high degree of flexibility allows companies to make quick adjustments to their work force in the different phases of the business cycle, and in hiring inexperienced youth.
The flexicurity model performed well in the two decades leading up to the global crisis and early assessment of its performance during the downturn also points to robust outcomes. At the same time, there has been only a small increase in structural unemployment in the wake of the downturn.
The Ethnic Coach for Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurs project aims to overcome a lack of trust in the public support system by providing advice from professional coaches from the same ethnic group as the participant. The role of the coach is to help the entrepreneur adjust to the regulatory and social norms of the new country, and to build and strengthen ethnic minority social and entrepreneurial networks.
Coaches help clarify and strengthen business plans and needs, then refer the entrepreneur to training and other advisory services in the local area.
Once the business is launched, coaches continue to support the entrepreneurs as they develop and grow their business. In recent years, nearly ethnic minority entrepreneurs have been assisted annually. Estonia faces a double challenge of high youth unemployment and lack of entrepreneurial culture among its young people. The "Be Enterprising" programme, targeted at year-olds, is designed to promote creativity, an enterprising attitude, problem solving skills and risk management knowledge.http://braidtalk.com/jof-sms-track-lg.php
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ENTRUM Youth Entrepreneurship Development Programme provides three modules of entrepreneurship training as well as access to a professional network that includes business professionals and successful entrepreneurs. Participants have started 59 businesses, the most successful of which has more than 60 employees. The project has received a number of awards, including a Swedish Business Award in Finland has invested highly in vocation education and training VET to maintain and develop adult skills that lead to better job prospects and a greater capacity to adapt to the labour market.
About 1. Most of the programmes are offered free of charge. Poor construction skills are often considered a possible weak link in the implementation of new building codes. Thus the introduction of new building codes to improve the energy efficiency of housing and commercial buildings requires re-training for construction workers. France introduced a certification system with a specific label for companies that conducted specific training of their staff on energy efficiency.
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Companies that adhere to the requirements receive a recognised environmental guarantee RGE label. Public awareness campaigns have encouraged consumers to ask for trained professionals with these labels. Companies are further encouraged to obtain this label as public financial assistance for renovating buildings only employs RGE-labelled companies. The programme trained 48 construction professional between and and has been prolonged to Female representation in top corporate jobs continues to lag behind in many OECD countries.
To counter this trend, Germany implemented binding gender quotas in to foster gender parity in both the private and public sectors. Second, companies that are either stock-listed or co-determined have to publish their objectives for the share of women they will appoint to boards and top management ranks. The Hungarian government introduced several active labour market policy measures to improve employability of certain groups of jobseekers, such as the Job Protection Act.
Its measures are largly aimed at strengthening labour demand for workers with weak links to the labour market, such as people under the age of 25 or over 55, long-term job-seekers and mothers with small children returning to work. With a gross wage of up to HUF , the overall The Youth Guarantee system aims to ensure that young people not in education, employment or training are provided with a support to improve their chances on the primary labour market. These include entrepreneurship support, apprenticeships and traineeships. Furthermore, the start-up incentive programme aims to help young people set up their businesses; young people who complete their training and have their business plan accepted can apply for a maximum EUR 10 grant to cover their initial costs.
Iceland consistently ranks among the top performers in terms of the participation of women in the labour market and on the Global Gender Gap Index. Iceland also ranks in the top ten on economic participation and opportunity. Smaller companies with 25 employees or more must disclose the gender composition of their employees, including those in management positions.
One initiative focuses on making sure that all jobs of equal value are paid the same. The government plans to make smaller companies, with 25 or more employees, develop a certification scheme for gender pay equality. Since this type of obligation could put pressure on smaller companies, the government plans to roll out the scheme gradually and monitor the change regularly to allow for modifications as needed.
This is a good example of best practice in continuing successful efforts in promoting and supporting gender equality in the workplace. Ireland encourages the development of high level skills through sector specific training programmes.
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Skillnets is Ireland's largest organisation supporting workplace training. It promotes and facilitates workplace training and upskilling by small- and medium-sized enterprises SMEs. Skillnets also heads a national programme that steers regional and sectoral SME training networks. These training plans are adapted to suit specific company workforces. Skillnets expanded in to provide training for jobseekers, including programmes like the Jobseeker Support Programme, which includes work placements.
It had 70 operational networks, 30 of which were based on Dublin, and trained over 40 people in The Momentum programme offers training for high level skills in line with the Action Plan for Jobs and Pathways to Work. The second phase of Momentum was launched in to provide up to 6 education and training places for the long-term unemployed to tackle skill shortages. It will provide over 9 places in free part-time and full-time higher education reskilling and upskilling courses.
The Springboard programme provided over 5 places in courses, including ICT conversion courses, in alone. Italy launched the National Industry 4. It provides a range of incentives to stimulate investment as well as increase public investment to extend the ultra-broadband network. A new type of permanent contract was also introduced, increasing employment protection for new hires with job tenure. A combination of measures to support paternal care and maternity protection, such as a monthly subsidy for female workers at the end of maternity, have also contributed to higher labour participation.
The coverage and duration of unemployment benefits were increased, improving both flexibility and security for Italian workers.
Recent growth in employment and participation rates demonstrate the initial success of these policies. High-school graduates in Japan traditionally get on-the-job vocational training. These placements are organised by schools and the public employment service, Hello Work. This is particularly helpful for young people with higher education who are not eligible for the vocational training programme. The Chiba Vocational Training Support Center — Polytechnic Center Chiba PPC is a public vocational training institution that protects elderly employment, promotes vocational independence of persons with disabilities, and promotes assistant services and training courses.
The PCC operates in four areas: training courses for jobseekers available for jobseekers in general ; training courses for workers; consultation and assistance for employers; and jobseekers support training targeted to non-EI recipients. The employment rate of jobseekers following training was The EIS is made up of an unemployment benefit, job security programmes and job capability programmes. For example, the job security programme creates new jobs and encourages employers to keep workers, while the job capability development programme creates training and education opportunities.
In , the subsidy was increased tenfold from the previous year to curb the effects of the crisis and prevent widespread unemployment.
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More should be done to include non-regular workers in the EIS and Korea has taken a first step in this direction by introducing the Durunuri programme, which reduces the burden of EIS insurance premiums for small firms. The public-private initiative Jonk Entrepreneuren Luxembourg Young entrepreneurs in Luxembourg promotes entrepreneurship and self-employment as an alternative to paid employment for young people.
The non-profit organisation offers tailor-made and practice-orientated training for students, supported by the private sector and the main professional chambers in Luxembourg. The project reaches students through their formal education, and annual fairs and entrepreneurship events. For example, the annual fair in was attended by students from 13 schools.
The project has also been successful at raising the profile and awareness about youth entrepreneurship through extensive media coverage. The Mexican government made a major breakthrough in improving the functioning of the labour market by passing a new reform into law in The reform reduces the stringency of job protection, which reduces formal labour participation, notably for women.
The law should help boost formal job creation and productivity, by enabling employers to adjust their labour force at lower cost and with less judicial uncertainty.
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While the new law's impact is still uncertain, OECD estimates that these reforms could raise potential growth by 0. Since its adoption formal employment has been more rapid than both overall employment and GDP growth. To further encourage the formalisation of the workforce the government launched "Go Formal" in The strategy pools the benefits and resources of different programmes and is expected to facilitate access to the labour market and strengthen labour justice enforcement.
A new Formal Promotion Program will train and place workers in formal jobs. A new tax regime for micro and small firms was created to provide an entry to formality by allowing them to be completely incorporated in the general tax regime after ten years. Evidence suggests this new tax regime, along with "Go Formal" campaigning efforts, is having a positive effect. Around 4. The project "Boris helps you into work" Boris brengt je naar een baan helps secondary schools better support students with disabilities in acquiring a job.
In collaboration with vocational schools and certified companies, the approach of practice-based learning was adapted to students with disabilities in secondary special education. The participating schools judged that the project helped them in improving the quality of practice-based learning trajectories, acquiring a better view on the job opportunities within the region and extending their network for internships.
The project "With the coach for the job" Met de coach naar de job supports students with a disability during the internship in their final study year and in their transition into the labour market.